Clay minerals have been found in a variety of geological settings on Mars, using both robotic and remote sensing exploration, and they are common in meteorites of a wide range of origins. Among other reasons, clay minerals are important in planetary and meteoritic investigation because they provide means to assess past environmental conditions, which is also important in relation to extraterrestrial life, due to their connection with water. Thus, clays are relevant because they help us to understand the evolution of planets and other extraterrestrial bodies, particularly with respect to the distribution and role of volatiles in the solar system. This session will focus on how clays can be used to decode geological processes, and we invite contributions that highlight the role of clays in extraterrestrial environments within a geo-chemical and mineralogical context, covering the following key issues:
- Clays as indicators of palaeoenvironments
- Clay mineral distributions and clay-forming processes in planets and meteorites
- Earth analogues of extraterrestrial materials and processes
- Planetary exploration, including planetary atmospheres, surface temperatures, albedo, etc., which are linked to the geology, geochemistry, and mineralogy of planets
- Role of clays in preservation of organics
- Time-temperature transformations of clay minerals
- Modelling of geochemical, physical, spectroscopic, etc., variables and processes aiming at both understanding mineralogy and elucidating geochemical environments and processes.
− Main convener: David Bish, Indiana University Bloomington, United States (firstname.lastname@example.org);
− Co-conveners: Christian Mavris, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum of London, United Kingdom (email@example.com); Ralph Milliken, Brown University, Providence, United States (Ralph_Milliken@brown.edu); Javier Cuadros, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum of London, United Kingdom (J.Cuadros@nhm.ac.uk).
Clays are natural ubiquitous nanoparticles. To understand the impact of clay nanoparticles on our environment and health, it is important to accurately characterize their microstructure, composition, and behavior. Advances in modern technology have greatly improved quantitative methods of data analysis in the structural and chemical characterization of clays, and in the understanding of fundamental processes involving clays. Most recently, significant progress in thorough characterization of complex and/or defective lamellar structures, including natural materials, clay nanomaterials, and mixed-layered structures has been achieved through the combination of experimental and computational/simulation approaches.
This session will be devoted to recent developments and advances of individual techniques, and to new possibilities offered by their combination. This session will feature an integrated discussion of clay and nanomaterial application from different fields such as geology, mineralogy, geochemistry, materials science, engineering, biology, and medical sciences. New structural interpretations, dynamical properties, and insights into the formation and evolution of such materials in natural environments are also relevant. Experimental and computational approaches aimed at scaling up structural information obtained at the molecular scale are especially welcome. Materials of interest include, but are not limited to, phyllosilicates, clay nanoparticles, layered oxides, layer double hydroxides, and layered compounds in general.
- Main convener: Bruno Lanson, ISTerre - CNRS, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, France (firstname.lastname@example.org)
- Co-conveners: Wen-An Chiou, University of Maryland, Clooege Park, Maryland, United States (email@example.com); Eric Ferrage, IC2MP/CNRS, Univ. Poitiers, France (firstname.lastname@example.org); Toshihiro Kogure, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan (email@example.com).
Very low-grade metamorphic petrology fills in the gap between the pressure (P) and temperature (T) fields of sedimentary and metamorphic petrology. Two important pillars of low-temperature metamorphism are clay mineralogy and organic petrology. When low temperature petrology was established 50 years ago bridging a hiatus between the two classical disciplines, geologists faced a need for the usage of different terminology tenets. Research is focussed on clarifying the relationships of clay mineralogy to metamorphic P and T conditions. Correlations between clay indices, organic parameters, index minerals (Barrow zones), facies critical paragenesis (facies zones of Winkler), fluid inclusion P-T determinations and clay mineral isotopic studies are necessary for different geodynamic settings and therefore P–T ratios occurring in low grade metamorphic terranes. All these efforts are dedicated to gain insight into the geodynamic evolution of low-grade metamorphic terranes. Geodynamics, advective heat flow or hydrothermal convective heat transfer have important control on the indices used. Tectonic units having a similar geodynamic evolution are featured by comparable trends, related to their particular paleo-geothermal regime. Clay mineral, organic matter and mineral indices relationships can be also used for prospection and exploration on hydrocarbons, intra formational mineral deposits, and geothermal studies. The correlations provide a mean to characterise geothermal gradients and metamorphic very low-grade P-T conditions. The symposium is intended to consolidate the progress in these studies, recently shown on the Euroclay and MECC meetings, which have generated special issues in international journals and will reveal the state of the art in very low-grade metamorphic studies on a worldwide level.
− Main convener: Rafael Ferreiro-Mählmann, Tech. Univ. Darmstadt, Inst Angew Geowissensch, Darmstadt, Germany (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: Blanca Bauluz, Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain (email@example.com); Sebastien Potel, Institut Polytechnique Lasalle Beauvais, France (firstname.lastname@example.org); Fernando Nieto, Departamento de Mineralogia y Petrologia, Universidad de Granada, Spain (email@example.com).
Chlorite is everywhere: from soils to detrital sediments, to sedimentary, diagenetic and hydrothermal systems and in low- and medium-grade metamorphic rocks. It forms as pure grains or as interstratified minerals with other phyllosilicate minerals such as smectite, serpentine and vermiculite, and has a wide variety of chemical compositions. This diversity of chlorite has potential to provide new information on many geologic processes, as fluid-rock interactions proxy, from the surface of the earth to deep in the crust. This session welcomes all with an interest in chlorite in any of its many forms and invites contributions that study chlorites and their related minerals from any environment using any analytical techniques.
− Main convener: Vincent Trincal, Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Besançon, France (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: Sayako Inoue, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokio, Japan (email@example.com); Stephen Hillier, The James Hutton Institute, United Kingdom (Stephen.Hillier@hutton.ac.uk).
Alkali activated and geopolymers binders are one potential aspect of the global solution. A geopolymer is an aluminosilicate binder formed by alkaline activation of solid alumina- and silica-containing precursor materials like clays and clay minerals, sand, slags and silicate solution. The role of precursor, ie. Clays, is primordial in the geopolymers properties (physico-chemical aspects and working properties). Advanced mineralogical techniques may provide important information for linking the molecular, microstructural, and kinetic data required to understand and control the behavior of such materials during the polycondensation process as well as their use. Some of themes may be (i) the alkali activation of kaolin and clays (or clay-based materials), (ii) the understanding of the polycondensation kinetics and microstructure development, (iii) the binders nanostructures (SEM, TEM, NMR, IR, Raman...), (iv) the role of impurity phases,… The comparison with the hydration process and concrete will be welcoming.
− Main convener: Emmanuel Joussein, Université de Limoges, GRESE, France (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: Sylvie Rossignol, Université de Limoges, SPCTS, France (email@example.com); Marilyne Soubrand, Université de Limoges, GRESE, France (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Geology and geochemistry
Near-surface geological deformation results in the formation of brittle faults, fractures and shears in the Earth’s crust and provide zones of dislocation, differential fluid movement, fluid-rock interaction and weakness. Such zones are therefore of considerable interest to those who seek to understand tectonic evolution but also to a range of civil engineering, tunnelling, hydrocarbon, underground storage and waste containment projects.
Displacement and fluid movement along discontinuities often results in the development of fault gouges composed of wallrock fragments and the growth of authigenic mineral phases including clay minerals. The low frictional strength of these hydrous minerals means that they are frequently associated with landslides, earthquake nucleation and propagation and the creep of major fault systems. The recent upsurge in new nuclear build projects critically require seismic risk assessments to be undertaken on any faults with surface displacements at or near sites under consideration.
Isotopic dating of illite and illite/smectite species using K-Ar, 40Ar-39Ar (micro-encapsulation) or Rb-Sr are often the only approaches to determine the minimum age of fracture formation, since minerals post-date fracture formation. Stable isotope analyses (H/O) can further provide valuable information of involved fluid sources in authigenic clay mineral formation processes. However, the validity of the different dating techniques remain controversial and have been challenged since their inception.
This session will examine the relationship between mineral transformation, deformation mechanisms and fault strength, with special emphasis on clay minerals from clay-filled joints to tectonic detachments. The session will also seek to explore the most recent advances and best practice in clay mineral dating techniques and to highlight examples of the wider role of clay minerals in fault behaviour. Contributions based on friction experiments, fault rock fabrics, model development as well as mineralogical assemblages and their chemical-structural features (reaction kinetics and illitization process during faulting) in different parts of natural faults are welcome.
− Main convener: Isabel Abad, Universidad de Jaén, Spain (email@example.com)
− Co-conveners: Simon Kemp, British Geological Survey, United Kingdom (firstname.lastname@example.org); Horst Zwingmann, Kyoto University, Japan (email@example.com); Anja M. Schleicher, Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Germany (firstname.lastname@example.org)
With the rising global demand for minerals and the preferential treatment of higher grade ores in the past, the mining and mineral processing industries are facing finely disseminated and low grade ores. Clays have a pervasive and a very major economic effect on the minerals industry and have the potential to significantly affect the planning, operation and economics of mineral processing projects. Clays are progressively identified as one of the main problem in the mining, extraction and value adding processes for most commodity raw materials. Clays can impact harmfully on almost every unit process within the mining and minerals processing sector. This session deals with the impact of clay minerals across the entire minerals processing value chain through a wide range of mining commodities. Problems related to clays, clay identification and appropriate solutions to solve these problems through the understanding of clay behavior will be the focus of this session.
− Main convener: Saeed Farrokhpay, University of Lorraine, France (email@example.com)
Through time, geological factors and processes have controlled the concentration and preservation of specific elements, minerals or hydrocarbons into viable economic resources. Ore mineral systems depend upon a source, a pathway, and ultimately a suitable trap for mineralization. Processes such as clay mineral crystallization, deposition, diagenesis, hydrothermal alteration and/or weathering provide key information to fingerprint the pathways and may provide physical or chemical traps. Clay minerals are associated with a variety of base metal, precious metal and hydrocarbon resources. This symposium aims to explore the factors, processes and mechanisms by which clay minerals contribute to forming ore deposits and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Presentations on new methodologies and models which enhance exploration industry’s ability to use clay minerals in their search for economic resources are particularly encouraged.
− Main convener: Jeanne Percival, Geological Survey of Canada, Natural Resources Canada (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Co-conveners: Oladipo Omotoso, Suncor Energy Inc., Strategic Technology, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (email@example.com)
This session focuses on the use of detrital or authigenic clay minerals in sediments of various ages, as indicators of continental and marine palaeoenvironments, including: weathering and erosional processes, identification of detrital sources, sediment flows and depositional processes of clays. The session will provide the opportunity to discuss the possibilities and limits of the use of the sedimentary clays as an indicator of palaeoclimate at various temporal scales. Are clay minerals a reliable proxy to record past climatic conditions? At which time scales? Regional vs global responses? How can detrital influence and diagenesis be taken into account?
This session will be also devoted to
- the diagenesis of clay minerals in sedimentary basins in their geodynamic context. How can clay minerals be used to understand the geodynamic evolution and palaeothermicity of sedimentary basins? What are the roles of fluids and their relationships with organic matter? A special attention will be given to marls: what do we know about their clay component, origin, diagenesis and importance for sedimentary basin analyses? What is the significance of the nature of clay and its origin in marls in the reconstruction of paleoenvironmental controls, depositional settings, development of limestone-marl alternation, and understanding petrophysical properties of these rocks?
- the development of authigenic clays in sandstone/carbonate reservoirs and their consequences for porosity/permeability. What is the role of precursor detrital clays for neoformation in porous rocks and the link between sources and sink processes? What about cementation and transformation in the various states of diagenesis?
- the significance of clay minerals from volcanic ash-layers (bentonites & tonsteins) interbedded in marine and continental series. What are the consequences in terms of geodynamic context, palaeovolcanism and stratigraphy? How can these deposits help to decipher diagenetic effects in sedimentary basins?
With this comprehensive approach we invite a broad variety of contributions, including studies focusing on sedimentology, mineralogy and on the geochemistry of clay minerals.
− Main convener: Jean-François Deconinck, University of Burgundy, France (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Co-conveners: Katarzyna Górniak, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Kraków, Poland (email@example.com); Pierre Pellenard, University of Burgundy, France (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Environment and soils
Clay minerals are key players in the interaction between living organisms and minerals, both as supporters of life and by-products of biological activity. Bio-geochemistry is an emerging field of great fundamental interest and promising applications. Clay science is called to play a central role in the development of this field. The leading question of this session is: what is the magnitude of the changes produced on the lithosphere by the interaction between living organisms and minerals?
Several key issues concerning the topic are: Co-evolution of life and the lithosphere; the physics and chemistry of the mineral-living organism interface; bio-mineral technology.
The scientific relevance of the topic could be summarized in two overarching issues: 1) understanding how the interaction between life and minerals takes place and the results and magnitude of this interaction; 2) the tremendous potential for application in this field. The session is deliberately wide and covers all type of studies within the topic, including:
- Prebiotic reactions in early Earth
- Origin of Life
- Preservation of life tracers
- Life-clay interaction, including microbial, plant and animal activity in all ecosystems, natural and agricultural
- Clay formation mediated by biological activity
- Critical zone
- Clay role in bioremediation
- Clay role in soil amendment
The session aims at: 1) generating awareness about the implications of life-mineral interaction; 2) providing information to Earth scientists about the state of the art and methodology of bio-geochemical studies; 3) promoting interdisciplinary studies between Earth, Life and Engineering sciences.
− Main convener: Javier Cuadros, Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom (email@example.com)
− Co-conveners: Araceli Perez-Sanz, Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom; Christian Mavris, Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Clay minerals (including Fe/Al/Mn oxides) often possess small particle size, high specific surface area and surface charge. Due to these unique properties, clay minerals have been extensive applications in industrial processes, agriculture, construction and environmental protection. The aim of this symposium session is to present current research on the application of natural and engineered clay minerals for various environmental applications using field and laboratory experiments, and numerical modelling. The symposium will include both invited and contributed presentations on a range of topics: clay characterisation for environmental application; practical applications in remediation of contaminated soils, sorption-desorption of contaminants, spectroscopic characterization of sorption processes, and modelling. Clay minerals also exert a major influence on biogeochemical processes and carbon cycle through their interaction with organic carbon in natural systems. We would also welcome papers on the interactions between minerals and organic carbon in the environment.
− Main convener: Balwant Singh, Centre for Carbon, Water and Food, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment , School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Australia (email@example.com)
− Co-conveners: Claudio Cameselle, University of Vigo, Chemical Engineering, Spain (firstname.lastname@example.org); Mohamed Elsayed, Soil, Water and Environmental Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Egypt (email@example.com)
Clays, hydroxides, and related minerals exert a strong influence on biogeochemical cycling and physical properties in the critical zone, where interactions between minerals, water, gases, and organisms regulate life-sustaining processes. In particular, reactive minerals in the CZ strongly affect nutrient availability, contaminant fate and transport, carbon cycling, permeability, and susceptibility to erosion. Burgeoning research on the influence of microbes on minerals, and vice versa, is expanding understanding of mineral reactivity, sorption, and elemental cycling. Precise mineralogical characterization allows prediction of water vapour adsorption as it relates to clay content, composition, texture, specific surface area and other hydro-physical properties, and knowledge in this area is notably lacking for soils in arid and tropical climates. Research on soil toposequences and chronosequences records the effects of geomorphic and hydrologic factors on soil mineralogy as well as the role of soil age and kinetic factors in controlling soil composition. Pedogenic clays record past biotic and climatic regimes when preserved in paleosols, and research on earth’s CZ informs understanding of the surface of Mars. In summary, this session seeks to attract a multidisciplinary group of presentations to foster analysis of ways in which clays improve knowledge and modeling of processes in the CZ - present, past and future.
− Main convener: Peter C. Ryan, Middlebury Coll, Dept Geol, Middlebury, United States (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: Jeff Wilson, Hutton Institute, United Kingdom (email@example.com); Abdelmonem Amer, Faculty of Agriculture, Menoufia University in Shebin El-Kom, Egypt (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Clay potential for pollutants control in the environment is a well-known issue. They develop the complementary functions of being a resistive barrier for water transport and, at the same time, a capacitive reactive barrier for ions retention. There exist a lot of experience in their use as part of engineered waste containment barriers either in the form of clay-polymer composite materials or compacted clay liners.
Compacted expansive clays are currently used as barriers both in landfills and in underground repositories. The hydro-mechanical and physical-chemical properties of these clays, and consequently their behavior, are greatly affected by the compaction state, i.e. by their porosity. Key properties for the environmental performance of the clay barriers and for the prediction of their evolution, such as permeability, swelling, pore water chemistry, specific geochemical reactions, gas and water adsorption and transport depend on porosity. In the last decades, and particularly in the framework of projects related to the underground disposal of radioactive wastes, considerable progress has been achieved in the area, although its reporting is frequently confined to specific radioactive waste conferences or to the engineering world. Also in this field, several long-term full scale performance experiments are now being studied and could support relevant information for making technological solutions for the future waste isolation facilities.
Examples of key questions to be discussed for the session proposal will be:
- How safe are actually emplaced compacted clay barriers in the environmental protection for future generations?
- Do we have already a sounded knowledge of clay barriers performance coming from long-term operating real scenarios?
- Can we share experience both in R&D or technology implementation considering the clay role in different fields as radioactive waste underground storage, hazardous waste landfills, or generic soil and water protection functions?
The present conference would be an occasion to integrate the studies performed on clay barriers from different perspectives and by researches coming from different backgrounds. Some related topics will be:
- Physical and Chemical alterations of clay materials relevant to the long-term isolation of wastes.
- Long term performance experiments of clay barriers: thermo-hydro-mechanical and chemical processes.
- Water, gas and solutes transport and reaction at the clay pore scale. Extension of micro to macro scale behavior.
- Time and spatial upscaling of hydro-mechanical and geochemical processes: from lab experiences to in-situ real scenarios tests.
- Main convener: Jaime Cuevas, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Madrid, Spain (email@example.com)
- Co-conveners: María Victoria Villar, CIEMAT, Applied Environmental Geology Unit, Madrid, Spain (firstname.lastname@example.org); Marcelo Sánchez, Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas, United States (email@example.com)
Interaction between clays and organic molecules and organisms
It is now well established that clays significantly enhance the properties of polymer blends, and are used to engineer new types of materials with unusual properties. In session we would like to highlight (a) Clays are universal polymer blend compatibilizers: A computational approach discussing the role of surface energies and aspect ratio to enhance blend compatibilization (b) Experimental applications of the universal compatibilization aspect: modifying the thermal, mechanical, and rheological properties with applications to flame retardant blends, additive manufacturing filaments, biodegradable compounds, and gas permeability. (c) Clay platelets vs Clay nanotubes (Halloysite): When morphology enhances the functionality of polymer/clay nanocomposites-. (d) Nanotoxicology of clay/polymer compounds and the use of clay/polymer nanocomposites in biomedical engineering--wound healing, clotting, stem cell scaffolds, microbial properties, tissue culture materials, etc (e) Nanostructured clay/polymer materials: electrospinning fibers with clay, 3_D printing with clay/polymer materials, etc.
− Main convener: Miriam Rafailovich, Stony Brook University, United States (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: Ying Liu, Stony Brook University, United States (Ying.Liu.1@Stonybrook.edu); Dilip Gersappe, Stony Brook University, United States (Dilip.Gersappe@stonybrook.edu); Tanushree Choudhury, Chemistry Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT Chennai, India (email@example.com)
Layered materials, and especially clay minerals and layered double hydroxides (LDH) , are widely used in drug products as excipients or active agents. Clays as well as LDH, are inexpensive materials, which can be functionnalized by ion exchange, grafting, metal-complex impregnation, pillaring in order to impart desired functionalities. The need for safe, therapeutically effective and patient-compliant drug delivery systems continuously leads researchers to design novel tools and strategies. Beside this, In most of new pharmaceutical products, new excipients with specific targets must be included, as for example decreasing or increasing dissolution rate, delaying drug release, targeting drug release, prevention or reduction of side effects, taste masking or increasing stability.Clays and LDH are useful materials for modulating drug delivery due to advantages such low toxicity and the ability to control the diffusion rate of adsorbed or encapsulated drug, pesticides or fertilizers thanks to their porous structure. The topic of this session has been chosen to highlight the most recent developments concerning drug delivery systems and will include the last experimental trends involving encapsulation of drugs, the strategies used to increase the drug stability, to target or delay drug release or dissolution. Special attention will be paid to the study of the release of drug. The scope of this session will encompass rational design of drug delivery systems based on clays,LDH, modified clays and LDH, their structural and textural characterization as well the formation of multifunctional drug delivey systems.
− Main convener: Jocelyne Brendlé, Axe Matériaux à Porosité Contrôlée, Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse, Université de Haute Alsac Strasbourg, France (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: Dimitrios Papoulis, Geology Department, University of Patras, Greece (Papoulis@upatras.gr); Vera Leopold Constantino, Departamento de Química Fundamental Instituto de Química - Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (email@example.com); Dionisios Panagiotaras, Department of Mechanical Engineering Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Western Greece (firstname.lastname@example.org)
This Session is intended to be a forum for the latest research on bionanocomposites, an emerging topic related with biohybrids and nanocomposites where biopolymers and other species of natural origin are assembled with inorganic solids of diverse structure and morphology at the nanometric scale to produce biocompatible and environmentally friendly materials with unique properties and performance at macroscopic level. Nowadays, they are attracting many scientists and engineers due to their extensive incidence in many different application fields from environmental remediation to biomedical engineering. Of particular relevance are bionanocomposites in which the inorganic components are clay minerals, as these silicates provide critical characteristics such as ion-exchange ability, large specific surface area and interesting texture due to the variate structural arrangement and morphology of clay minerals and related solids.
The aim of this Session is to focus on innovative advances of bionanocomposites based not only on common layered natural or synthetic silicates, such as smectites and vermiculite, but also on clay minerals with other morphologies and origin, such as sepiolite, palygorskite, halloysite, imogolite and related materials - silica, phosphates, LDHs, etc.
The Session is planned for discussing new aspects from preparation and specific characterization to performance and especially advanced applications of this type of nanomaterials. Contributions dealing with molecular and architectural design of functional nanohybrids from diverse clay nanoparticles and biopolymers by intercalation, casting, layer-by-layer technique, self-assembly, sol-gel chemistry, in situ generation and other emerging procedures are examples for being introduced.
Special consideration will be paid to the interaction of clays and clay-based nanomaterials with biomolecules, biological interfaces and biofluids. In this way, biohybrids involving clays and biopolymers like polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and more complex organic entities including natural membranes, virus and bacteria, algae and other living cells are being also within the scope of the Session.
Bionanocomposite applications as bioplastics, membranes and food packaging, drug delivery systems and gene vectors, other health and care products including adjuvants of vaccines, tissue engineering materials, sunscreen and cosmetics will be another important topic. Environmental applications as specific adsorbents of heavy metals and pesticides, as well as components of (bio)sensors and (bio)reactors will be also in focus of discussions.
- Bionanocomposites design and assembly via polysaccharides, proteins, DNA and inorganic nanoparticles
- Clay-biopolymer hydrogels, films, foams and aerogels
- Biohybrid nanomaterials with low dimensional clays (halloysite, imogolite, sepiolite, palygorskite) and silica nanoparticles, etc.
- New nanoarchitectural design via cellulose and chitin nanofibers
- Viral and living cell biohybrids
- Functional bionanocomposites for biomedical and environmental applications
− Main convener: Eduardo Ruiz-Hitzky, CSIC, Materials Science Institute of Madrid, Spain (email@example.com)
− Co-conveners: Yury Shchipunov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Far East Department, Russia (firstname.lastname@example.org); Pilar Aranda, CSIC, Materials Science Institute of Madrid, Spain (email@example.com).
Natural and modified clays are fundamental ingredients of several health care products in which clays play different technical and biological functions. They are used as actives in anti-diarrheic, antacid and anti-inflammatory formulations. Together with these uses, some clays are used as additives in several medicinal products, for example as gelling, wetting or viscosity agents as well as adsorbents. Clays are also fundamental components in cosmetics, nutritional complements and alternative medicinal products, as well as in thermal muds used in medical hydrology. In the last years several studies have been focused in these classical uses but also in new possibilities of clays in health care, as for example on the basis of their antibacterial properties. This session will report the state of the art of the classical and new uses and possibilities of clays and their derivatives in promoting health care.
− Main convener: Carola Aguzzi, Pharmaceutical Technology Department, University of Granada, Spain (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: Parvez I. Haris, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, UK (email@example.com)
Computational modeling is rapidly emerging as one the powerful tools in the studies of clay structure and properties. This session invites contributions covering various molecular simulation techniques as applied to clays and clay-related minerals, their interfaces and interactions with other materials, both organic and inorganic such as in the environment or in nanocomposites. Simultaneously, we invite contributions covering several important topics, as they are treated by molecular modeling: adsorption, diffusion, swelling, aggregation, molecular structure and dynamics of clay interlayers, clay particle edges and their reactivity, mechanical/elastic properties, etc. The contributions combining molecular computer simulations with molecular scale experimental studies, such as synchrotron X-ray techniques, neutron scattering, NMR, and other experimental methods are especially welcome
− Main convener: Andrey Kalinichev, Laboratoire SUBATECH (UMR 6457) - Ecole des Mines de Nantes, France (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: C. Ignacio Sainz Diaz, Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra. CSIC - UGR, Granada. Spain (email@example.com); Hendrik Heinz, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, United States (firstname.lastname@example.org); Chris Greenwell, Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, United Kingdom (email@example.com).
Bentonites are being considered as artificial barriers within the concept of deep geological disposal of intermediate and high level radioactive waste disposal in several countries across the world. Under repository-relevant conditions, microbial cells may interact efficiently with radionuclides, with anthropogenic and natural organic materials along with H2 generated by corrosion and radiolysis. Thus, microbial activity may control radionuclide migration from the repository, waste form evolution in situ and structural stability of bentonites. The main objective of this session is to present advances in the field of biogeochemical processes occurring at the interface microbe/radionuclide/organic/clay using a multidisciplinary approach combining spectroscopy, microscopy, microbiology, mineralogy, radiochemistry, geochemistry, organic chemistry, and modeling techniques (e.g. metagenomics, metaproteomics, EXAFS, TRLFS, STEM/HAADF, SEM, etc.). In addition, this session will help in the identification of key knowledge gaps that are limiting further advancement in understanding of how microbial processes will affect the safety and performance of future repositories. We welcome contributions relating to field, laboratory and computational studies that provide new analytical and conceptual approaches for studying: 1) microbial diversity and activity in clays, 2) redox processes of radionuclides in systems containing microbes, organics and clays, 3) effect of biotic and abiotic parameters on the structural stability of clays, 4) effect of biogenic and organic ligands in the mobility of radionuclides through clays, and other research related in this area.
− Main convener: Mohamed Larbi Merroun, Departamento de Microbiología, Universidad de Granada, Spain (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: Andrea Cherkouk, Institute of Resource Ecology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, Germany (email@example.com); Maria E. Romero Gonzalez, Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The clay based minerals are the main components in ceramic products, including traditional, fired, non-fired as well as waste-based fired ceramics. Natural clays confer plasticity and workability to traditional, fired or non-fired, ceramics and play a major role in building materials since several millennia until nowadays. The type and amount of the clay minerals determine the mechanical behavior and durability of the building materials. For fired products clays furnish the main oxides involved, with fluxes and sintering aids, in the consolidation mechanism during firing. The worldwide economy context, including that of the Southern Countries that face for more than a decade a significant housing deficit, influences the whole ceramic industry moving from tiles, bricks, sanitary and tableware. The main challenges for the manufacturers is first to use local raw materials including clays and clayed materials less valuable that need a deep study in terms of chemical, physical and mineralogical features, for decreasing costs and second to develop high quality, sustainable eco-efficient materials by reducing energy consumption. The research should work hand in hand in improving processes and technologies. The need to increase the energy saving involves firing cycles very short that not permit the achievement of thermodynamic equilibrium in the solid state reactions. It may cause deformation of the finished product during cooling. The new products at high thickness need firing cycles ad hoc and thoroughness of the time required for the sintering reactions. Other issues related to the manufacture of sanitary by pressure casting where the rheological parameters influence the success of the production and must be studied and controlled. Considering the high volumes of the ceramic production in China and emerging countries as Brazil, India it is interesting discuss on global view if the demand of clays and available deposits for ceramic production in the future may turn clays into critical raw materials.
In this session are welcome researches regarding methods to determine ceramic properties in clays, new techniques to predict/measure sintering, rheological behavior, phase transformation, not destructive methods to measure properties. In addition recent research advances in the preparation, characterization, and application of ceramic materials will be highlighted. Presentation of problems and solutions in improvement techniques, especially in waste-based building materials, are welcome.
- Leading question: product and process innovation in the traditional or industrial ceramic production is drastically changing the technological requirements of clay materials.
- Key issues: chemical and mineralogical composition as a key to understand technological properties of clays used in ceramics. Rheological behavior is a key to produce sanitary and tableware by slip casting.
- Scientific relevance: discussion on the most relevant parameters to define suitable clay composition and technological behavior in the different ceramic‐making.
- Aims to achieve: up‐to‐date picture of composition and properties of clays used in ceramic production.
- Potential themes: examples of clay deposits for tiles, bricks, sanitary and tableware; methods to determine ceramic properties in clays; new techniques to predict/measure sintering, rheological behavior, phase transformation; not destructive methods to measure properties, picture of mineralogical composition of clays actually utilized in ceramic manufacturing; global view on clay demand for ceramic production; may clays turn into critical raw materials. Novel technologies of clay beneficiation and improvement of performance.
- Main convener: Michele Dondi, Italian Natl Res Council, Inst Sci & Technol Ceram, Faenza, Italy (email@example.com)
- Co-conveners: Nathalie Fagel, University of Liège Belgium (firstname.lastname@example.org); Ignazio Allegretta, Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e degli Alimenti - Università degli Studi di Bari "Aldo Moro", Italy (email@example.com); Lahcen Daoudi, University Cadi Ayyad, Morocco (firstname.lastname@example.org).
The world-wide annual increase of waste production requires not only measures to reduce their generation, but also recycling and reuse. In this regard, the latest European directives concerning waste, Directives 2006/12/CE and.2008/98/CE, are oriented to transforming the European Union into a “recycling society” that attempts to avoid generating waste and that uses it as a resource. Traditionally, not hazardous inorganic wastes have been disposed off in landfills and often dumped directly into ecosystems without adequate treatment a possible reuse or recycling alternative should be investigated and implemented.
The world production of ceramic materials for building sector requires massive amount of natural raw materials, which until now is based mainly on the traditional system clay-silica-feldspar. Natural raw materials used in the fabrication of clay-based ceramic products show a wide range of compositional variations and the resulting products are very heterogeneous. Therefore, such products can tolerate further compositional fluctuations and raw material changes, allowing different types of wastes to be incorporated into the internal structure as part of their own matrix. This allows also immobilize hazardous waste into fired bodies and enhance them as secondary raw materials.
In the last 20 years more studies were conducted in order to substitute the different components of the ternary formulation, the new challenges foresee not traditional raw materials into the ceramic industry for the obtainment of ceramics with insulation properties, lower firing temperature with the increasing emphasis on environmental protection and energy-saving, these ceramic products should have considerable market.
In this session are welcome case studies an researches that involve the use of alternative raw material / residues deriving from different industrial sector and investigate the interaction waste- clay fraction during the manufacturing cycle and the effects on the final products properties.
- Leading question: clay ceramics have a huge potential as receptors of wastes that can be immobilized in fired bodies and valorized as secondary raw materials.
- Key issues: interactions between clay minerals and waste materials during the manufacturing cycle; overall view on requirements for waste recycling in clay ceramic (technological, technical, environmental, economic).
- Scientific relevance: discussion on mineralogical, physico-chemical and technological constraints to waste recycling in ceramic production.
- Aims to achieve: critical assessment on what wastes can be actually recycled in ceramics under the viewpoint of clay scientist.
- Potential themes: case studies of waste valorization in building materials: tiles, bricks, lightweight aggregates and materials for insulation, sanitary ware,…; focus on technological, technical, environmental, economic aspects of waste recycling in ceramic production.
− Main convener: Fernanda Andreola, Engineering Dept."Enzo Ferrari"- University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy (email@example.com)
− Co-conveners: Joao Labrincha, Materials and Ceramics Eng. Dept., & CICECO – University f Aveiro, Portugal (firstname.lastname@example.org); Meriam El Ouahabi, University of Liège, Belgium (email@example.com).
Zeolite tuffs of diverse origin and mineralogy are widely used in environmental applications, including construction, agriculture and waste treatment. Each zeolite type [i.e. mordenite-, clinoptilolite, phillipsite- and chabazite-rich and their mixtures exhibit diverse properties and efficiency in specific applications. More work has to be performed to obtain accurate and applicable conclusions on the role of each raw material. In addition, the clayey diatomite is used in several EU countries for the production of insulation bricks, lightweight aggregates and absorbents of hazardous liquids. High quality reserves are limited in some EU countries, therefore further research has to be implemented, to identify the efficiency of particular zeolites and diatomaceous rocks.
− Main convener: Michael Stamatakis, National University of Athens, Department of Geology & Geoenvironment, Greece (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: Manuel Regueiro, Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, Spain (email@example.com)
Nanomaterials and clay technology
The session will cover a wide range of natural and synthetic cationic and anion layer materials related to applied science and Green chemistry. Recent research advances in modification of natural and synthetic clays and synthesis of clays that allow to change their different functionalities (e.g. adsorption properties, catalytic behavior etc.) will be highlighted. Modifications include ion exchange, intercalation and surface or interlayer grafting by organic and/or inorganic molecules. Design of pillared layer cationic or anionic clays is also relevant, because the upgrading of clays by the pillaring process opens new and interesting perspectives, on account also of possible shape selective effects. One of the main scopes of this session will encompass rational design of clays and modified clays and their structural and textural characterization. The session will cover all aspects of clay science in the field of heterogeneous catalysis (acid-base and redox reactions photocatalysis), sorption and decontamination processes. In particular, the modified clay as a solid acid has received increased attention in the synthesis of fine and bulk chemicals, which is more green than either liquid acids or the other solid acids due to its natural nature. Experimental and theoretical studies of processes of adsorption and catalysis in the presence of clay materials for environmental protection and medical science are also included. Effect of chemical clay modification on adsorptive and catalytic properties also will be encompassing. The aim of this session is to provide insight into the possibilities of these materials for the development new processes for environmental protection and green processes with potential industrial applications.
− Main convener: Liu Zhong-Wen, Shaanxi Normal University, People’s Republic of China (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: Maria Timofeeva, Institute of catalysis SB RAS, Russia (email@example.com); Antonio Gil, Public University of Navarra, Spain (firstname.lastname@example.org); Miguel Angel Vicente, University of Salamanca, Spain (email@example.com)
The polymer–nanoparticles hybrid systems or nanocomposites have been the exponentially growing field of research for developing the materials in last few decades and have been mainly focusing on the structure–property relationships and their development. Since the polymer–nanocomposites have been the staple of modern polymer industry, their durability under various environmental conditions and degradability after their service life are also essential fields of research. Among various nanoparticulates, clay minerals are more often used in enhancing physical, mechanical and thermal properties of polymers. In very few systems, the nanoparticulates have been incorporated into polymer as ‘nano-additives’ for both purposes: degradation and stabilization of polymers. The degradation and durability of polymers in the presence of clay nanoparticles under different environmental conditions should be discussed for exploring real potential of nanocomposites. This session may help in exploring the recent developments.
The session covers the latest scientific studies and technological advances about synthetic clay minerals, clay-like materials and their derived hybrids.
Firstly, many studies have indicated that the knowledge acquired from synthesis chemistry of clay minerals contribute to a better understanding of the geological formation mechanisms of natural clay minerals. Secondly, synthesis process offers a direct method to tune the composition and properties, consequently increasing the performances and establishing many applications of the synthetic clay minerals. Thirdly, synthetic clay minerals with well-designed and well-controlled composition and structure provide homogeneous and well-defined samples for fundamental studies and make advanced functional materials. Clearly, the synthetic clay minerals are one of important fields in clay minerals and the topic is of great significance industrially and academically.
The session will solicit submissions of recent studies thematically on ‘Synthetic clay minerals and derivatives’ and make these clay scientists come together to share and discuss the new advances and identify the existing critical issues in the field.
- Efficient and cleaner synthesis technology of clay minerals and analogous silicates, including synthetic organo-silicate hybrids;
- Characterization of synthetic clay minerals and formation mechanism;
- Structure-properties relationships and new applications and products;
- Advanced materials based-on synthetic clay minerals or the derivatives.
- Synthesis of clay minerals;
- Synthetic aluminosilicates, derivatives and hybrids
- Characterization of synthetic clay minerals;
- Structure-properties-uses relationships;
- Synthetic clay minerals-based advanced materials
− Main convener: Chun-Hui Zhou; College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, China (firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com)
− Co-conveners: Hongting Zhao, Hangzhou Dianzi University, China (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Recent studies investigating clays for stem cell-based regenerative strategies suggest striking potential to provide new opportunities in the design of smart biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The well-established utility of clays to interact with biological molecules and to interact with polymers to enhance mechanical properties are of profound relevance to the burgeoning field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Furthermore, pioneering studies exploring, in this context, cellular interactions with clays have suggested exciting and unforeseen potential for modulating fundamental cellular functions such as adhesion, differentiation and mineralisation in addition to influencing mechanics. This session seeks to draw together the growing expertise in this emerging application of clay to consolidate concepts, address key challenges and highlight recent advances.
The session will focus on the question: How can clay interactions with biomolecules, polymers and cells be harnessed in biomaterial design and regenerative medicine?
- Clay-polymer nano-composites
- Clay mediated gene or growth-factor delivery
- Biocompatibility and biodegradation of clay materials
- Clay-cell interactions in mediating biological responses
- Clay interactions with the extracellular matrix
- • Clay and biomineralisation
Portland cement production is responsible for 5 – 7 % of the antrophrogenic CO2 emissions, which along with the increasing demand for construction materials represent a highly important challenge for the cement industry. The most promising route to improve the sustainability of cement and concrete is to blend Portland cement with other pozzolanic materials such as fly ash and slags. However, the supplies of these supplementary cementitious materials (SCM’s) are limited and will in the future be further reduced. Calcined clays represent the most promising source of new SCMs which can make a substantial contribution to a lowering of the CO2 emissions associated with the cement production. Thus, in approx. the past five years there has been an increasing research interest to explore the potential of calcined clays as new SCM’s in Portland cement blends. Most recently, the efforts in this field were addressed at “The First International Conference on Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete” held at EPFL, Lausanne, June 2015.
From the view of cement research, it will be very interesting to establish a dialogue with the clay minerals society which so far has been rather limited. From a scientific point of view, there exists several interesting common research areas between the two communities, in particular related to thermal activation of clay minerals and their dissolution/reactivity under different chemical conditions.
− Main convener: Jørgen Skibsted, Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Denmark (email@example.com)
− Co-conveners: Karen Scrivener, Laboratory of Construction Materials, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland (firstname.lastname@example.org); Horst-Michael Ludwig, F.A. Finger-Institut für Baustoffkunde, Bauhaus Universität Weimar, Germany (email@example.com).
More than one billion people on our planet lack access to fresh drinking water. Each year 3.5 million people die from water-borne diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, gastroenteritis and cholera. Due to the lack of resources and infrastructure, this problem is particularly widely spread in the developing world where 80 percent of diseases are caused by contaminated water. If present global water consumption patterns continue, two out of every three people on Earth will suffer from water-stressed conditions by the year 2025. Thus, bringing safe, clean drinking water close to people’s homes is essential to reversing the endless cycle of misery that affects so many people. Several studies on the application of clays, organoclays or nanocomposites in water treatment were presented in the last decades. Clay minerals offer a ubiquitous, cheap, effective and versatile platform that can be adapted to solve problems in potable or wastewater, allowing the use of problematic sources as drinking water, or reuse of previously heavily polluted water for irrigation. This session aims to attract such researchers to present their studies in a specifically designated session, allowing them to interact and opening doors for possible future collaboration.
− Main convener: Giora Rytwo, MIGAL Research Institute/Tel Hai College, Israel (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: Fatimah Is Fatimah, Chemistry Department, Islamic University of Indonesia (email@example.com); Binoy Sarkar, Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Australia & Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Clay minerals have specific adhesion and adsorption properties impeccable for numerous scientific problems and technological applications ranging from the classical experiments on DNA adsorption on the montmorillonite clay mineral and modern biomedical materials for absorption of toxic compounds and heavy metals, filtration and wastewater treatment, and sustainable catalysts for organic reactions, to various polymer-clay nanocomposites for membranes, functional materials, and building materials. Understanding of the molecular forces driving adsorption of molecular species and nanoparticles on clays in different complex solvent environments is critical for optimization and design of new clay based materials and processes. While the behaviour of clay minerals dispersed in water has been amply studied in the last decades, or even in the last century, there is a conceptual gap in our understanding of their behaviour and characteristics in non-aqueous environments. This session will bring together experts in theoretical modeling, experiment, and industrial applications of clays to outline the challenging problems in design of new clay based systems and materials and to address fundamental questions of molecular mechanisms of clay adsorption and interaction in solution systems ranging from aqueous to non-aqueous solvents and mixtures. Particular applications include bioadsorption on clays, and flocculation of clay nanoparticles in non-aqueous and aqueous electrolyte solutions with polymeric additives.
- Main conveners: Andriy Kovalenko, National Institute for Nanotechnology, and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Canada (email@example.com); Christian Detellier, Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada (Christian.Detellier@uottawa.ca)
Material scientists, biomedical researchers and engineers are growing their interest toward clay nanotubes (halloysite, imogolite) and of fibrous clay minerals as multifunctional nano-containers for materials applications and drug formulations. At a same time an increase in the number of commercial availability in the word would bring the research outputs to the industrial applications in a faster pace.
A closer look, however, reveals the diversity of clay nanotubes applications besides the relevance of the fundamental knowledge on the mineralogy and morphology to target a given set of special applications.
This session intends to bridge the different competences on clay nanotubes from scientist with a wide range of specialization (biologist, chemists, geologists, engineers, physicists).
The topics will be:
- clay nanotubes (mineralogy, geology, synthesis, modification and characterization);
- clay nanotubes applications and future prospects in medicine and biology;
- clay nanotubes in materials science and composites.
- modelling of the halloysite and imogolite
− Main convener: Giuseppe Lazzara, Univerity of Palermo, Italy (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: Erwan Paineau, Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, CNRS-Université Paris Sud, France (email@example.com); Pooria Pasbakhsh, Monash University, Malaysia (firstname.lastname@example.org); Rawil Fakhrullin, Kazan Federal University, Russia (email@example.com).
Self-organization processes and self-organized structures are actual topics in physics and materials science. Geological clay structures were formed by self-organizational processes for which for example salt environment was one governing control parameter. In modern materials science, controlled self-organization processes are essential for design of clay nano-composite materials, and also for smart material structures and smart material phenomena, where for example clay particles may be an ingredient. One can in these contexts distinguish between spontaneous self-organization (for example nematic ordering of clay platelets in gravity, or induced by temperature) and self-organization guided by electric or magnetic fields. Essential to understand in this context is the physics of how nanostructures translate into macroscopic behavior such as flow and elasticity of formations and of nanostructured materials in general.
− Main convener: Jon Otto Fossum, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Clays have unique intrinsic physical and chemical properties which are valued by industry. Due to their properties they have been used by man since prehistoric times and nowadays they find applications from traditional industries (papers, paints, plastics, rubbers, ceramics, drilling, fillers, foundries, adsorbents etc) to high added value specialized sectors (nanocomposites and bionanocomposites, catalysis etc). The properties of clays stem from the clay minerals which are the main constituent in clayey rocks and which can be modified by various treatments, thereby yielding materials with high added value. The unique properties of clays underline the need for a multidisciplinary research approach with contribution from earth sciences, soil and agricultural science, chemistry, physics, environmental science, material science, chemical engineering, pharmacology, toxicology and pharmaceutics and biological sciences and as such the proposed session is expected to be of high interest for the international clay community. The commercially available clays and the corresponding clay minerals to be considered in this session are bentonites (smectite), kaolins (kaolinite, halloysite, dickite -nacrite is not available in commercial deposits), sepiolite and palygorskite. Synthetic clay minerals like laponite (synthetic hectorite), as well as talc and pyrophyllite are also considered. The scope of this session is to present recent advances in the applications of industrial clays, especially in front-line industrial sectors such as the filler and coating industry and the oilfield industry
The following topics will be included in this session:
- Characterization of industrial clays both in the lab and the field for use in traditional and high added value applications.
- Traditional applications of clays (paper and packaging, paints and coatings, rubbers and plastics, foundries)-changes in demand and application requirements.
- Polymer Applications: Plastics, Rubber, Adhesives
- Consumer, Agriculture and Adsorbent Applications.
- New and developing applications (e.g. barrier coatings, inks and varnishes).
− Main convener: George Christidis, Technical University of Crete, School of Mineral Resources Engineering, Greece (email@example.com)
− Co-conveners: Jon Phipps, IMERYS, Par Moor Centre, Cornwall, United Kingdom (Jon.Phipps@imerys.com); Prakash Malla, Thiele Kaolin Company, Sandersville, Georgia, United States (Prakash.Malla@thielekaolin.com)
Ever since the discovery of graphene, material scientists are on a journey to unravel extraordinary physical and chemical properties related to the destruction or limitation of translational symmetry along the stacking direction. Exfoliation of layered compounds into two-dimensional nanosheets was shown to allow for the tuning of phononic, electronic, ferroic, electrochemical, thermal, and mechanical properties. As judged by the number of publication in high-profile materials science journals, more traditional anionic and cationic clays seem to have lost out in this hype despite many unique features. To name a few: 1. Clays have a moderate charge density and show a much richer intracrystalline reactivity that renders inclusion of functionality straightforward. 2. Confinement and electrostatic pressure on interlayer species may render molecules optically anisotropic, thermally and (photo-)chemically stable and shape-/size-selective in respect to catalysis and separation. 3. In ordered heterostructures, interlayers with different reactivities strictly alternate in stacks where mass transport is inhibited while energy and charge carriers might cross/tunnel the barrier. 4. Clays are patchy particles carrying surfaces of different functionality which allows for fabrication of complex mesostructures by designing interparticle interactions.
In this line, the session will gather clay scientist interested in various material science challenges for an exchange of ideas with material scientist so far not involved in the clay community but who have worked with clays or layered materials in the past. This way, the session hopefully will become an incubator for novel clay-based two-dimensional materials.
This session will gather clay scientist interested in various material science challenges for an exchange of ideas with material scientist so far not involved in the clay community but who have worked with clays or layered materials in the past. This way, the session hopefully will become an incubator for novel clay-based two-dimensional materials.
− Main convener: Josef Breu, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Bayreuth, Germany (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: Makodo Ogawa, Vidyasirimedhi Institute of Science and Technology, Rayong, Thailand (email@example.com); Jon Otto Fossum, Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Photochemistry and optics of clay-based hybrid materials have been developed during the past three decades, and have greatly enriched in the intercalation chemistry. Layered clay minerals and layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have provided interlayer two-dimensional media to develop materials in this field. Lots of reports demonstrate that hybrid materials composed of these layered solids and organic molecules (e.g. photo-functional dyes) show unique photochemical/optical properties, and they have revealed that the two-dimensional media provided by the layered minerals can control/develop the photo- and optical functionalities, because of their transparency, flat surfaces, anionic/cationic charges on surfaces, swelling behavior and exfoliate/stack behavior. Understanding these unique photo- and optical-functionalities of hybrid materials will make a contribution to scientists of clay minerals to afford fundamental knowledge in interface sciences for the layered solids and future applications of clay minerals in photochemistry and optics. Then these knowledge will help researchers who take interests in clays, other inorganic layered materials, and surfaces of nano-materials.
Themes of this session are: i) Advanced/Theoretical researches on photochemistry/optics of clay-based hybrid materials; ii) Synthesis, preparation, characterization and photo-/optical functionalities of clays and clay-based hybrid materials.
Topics of this session will be
- Photocatalysis and photoinduced redox reaction
- Photoresponses of molecular configuration (e.g., photoisomerization and photochromism)
- Luminescence and energy transfer
- Linear- and nonlinear-optics
− Main convener: Tomohiko Okada, Shinshu University, Japan (email@example.com)
− Co-conveners: Jun Kawamata, Yamaguchi University, Japan (firstname.lastname@example.org); Takuya Fujimura, Shimane University, Japan (email@example.com)
Understanding and controlling the properties and structure of “clay colloids” have been important issues for many years. The study of clay colloids are important for fine fabrication of nano-structured functional materials by assembly of clay nanosheets from the colloids, as well as for classical applications such as paint and cosmetics. Rheological phenomena such as thixotropy and gelation have been key issues, whereas the liquid crystal phases formed in clay colloid are recently highlighted as a intriguing phenomenon in the condensed matter physics and for materials science. The structural characterization of clay colloids by in-situ method such as small-angle X-ray scattering is regarded as important technique to understand the mechanisms of these intriguing phenomenon found in clay colloids.
This session aims at deep discussion on structured clay colloids and its their applications.
The potential themes will be as:
- Property, structure, and applications of liquid crystal phase in clay colloids
- Rheological properties of clay colloids
- Clay colloids added with polymers, surfactant micelle, and other colloids.
- In-situ structural analyses of clay colloids
- Response of clay colloids to electric, magnetic, and shear field.
- Functional composite materials from structured clay colloids
− Main convener: Nobuyoshi Miyamoto, Department of Life, Environment, and Materials Science, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Japan (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: Patrick Davidson, Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-SUD, Orsay, France (email@example.com); Teruyuki Nakato, Department of Applied Chemistry, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, Japan (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Interactions between CO2 and clay minerals have attracted interest in the scientific community in recent years, partly because geological structures are being investigated as storage sites for anthropogenic CO2. The cap-rock formations which act as flow barriers and seals in this context are known to contain high proportions of clay minerals, and the long-term integrity of these formations is a prerequisite for avoiding CO2 losses to the atmosphere.. However, the physical parameters affecting the interactions between CO2 and clay minerals under reservoir conditions are still not well understood4.
Recent experiments and also numerical studies, demonstrate that smectite clay under certain pressure, concentration, Temperature conditions can capture and retain CO2 in a controlled manner, and it has been demonstrated that smectite clays may be as good a recyclable CO2 capturing material as any other natural or synthetic material studied in this context.
In this session we wish to gather experimentalists, and interested researchers working with numerical studies of molecular adsorption in clays, for fruitful discussions about CO2 or methane capture by clays.
− Main convener: Jon Otto Fossum, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway (email@example.com)
− Co-conveners: Henri van Damme, MIT, United States (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Over the last decade, the research on layered double hydroxides LDH has been developing in different directions, on both fundamental and applied aspects of these materials. As a result of their high compositional variability and large range of processing parameters, LDH materials show great potential in healthcare, environmental remediation, energy conversion and storage.
The constant improvements in the methods of assessing the structure and the physicochemical properties of solids continually enhance understanding of LDH materials. Significant advances have thus been made concerning the tailor-made preparation of LDH as such or in mixtures in terms of composition, particle size and shaping. The development of molecular dynamic methods and their use in combination with experimental techniques has also led to significant progress in the understanding of the structure of LDH assemblies of any kind, from pristine materials to hybrid formulations or even the hierarchical structure of LDH based-nanocomposites and their properties.
This symposium will be devoted to the most recent progresses concerning LDH based formulations and assemblies, novel properties associated therewith, new contributions of advanced characterization techniques and the development of more efficient materials in the aforesaid fields of application.
− Main convener: Vanessa Prevot, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, Aubière, France (email@example.com)
− Co-conveners: Christine Taviot Gueho, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, Aubière, France; Ruby Christian, Institut Jean Barriol, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l'Environnement, Université de Lorraine, France (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The very fact of the presence of water in clays affects most of their important properties. On the microstructural and textural levels, the degree of hydration is the key factor governing dispersion or flocculation, i.e. the stability of clay aggregates. Most of the clay macroscopic properties such as plasticity, swelling and shrinkage, shear strength, permeability and many others cannot be explained without taking into account the interaction of clay minerals and water. However, despite the relevance of the topic, the corresponding state-of-the-art cannot be considered as satisfactory. In particular, we know little about the properties of the surface adsorbed water and the water confined in pores, the molecular mechanism of swelling, shrinking and plasticity, the positions of the exchangeable cations in the interlayer space and their effect on the structure and properties of the interlayer water. There is an urgent need for merging results of investigations carried out by the use of NMR, DSC, XRD, IR spectroscopy, neutron scattering, molecular dynamic simulations and many other techniques in one consistent and reliable theory of clay-water systems.
List of potential themes:
- effect of the confinement on the properties of water
- position of the exchangeable cations and their effect on the structure and properties of the interlayer water
- state of water in clay-water systems: confinement vs. adsorption
- effect of temperature and pressure on the clay-water interaction
- molecular mechanisms of swelling, shrinking, permeability, plasticity and shear strength
- modern experimental techniques: NMR, DSC, XRD, IR spectroscopy, neutron scattering, molecular dynamic simulations
− Main convener: Tomasz Kozlowski, Kielce University of Technology, Poland (email@example.com)
Clay minerals are considered as one of the main mineralogy of the oil and gas bearing rocks. Sandstone rocks contain more than one type of clay minerals such as; illite, kaolinite, chlorite, and smectite. Understanding the behavior and mineral composition of the clay mineral will save a lot of money and effort during several operational processes in oil and gas wells. Clays might cause damage (reduce the oil and gas production rate) if they were not tested with the injected fluid. All fluid that will be injected to the reservoir during, drilling, well clean up, workover, acidizing, hydraulic fracturing, secondary oil recovery, and enhanced oil recovery should be compatible with clay minerals existing in the reservoir otherwise they may cause severe formation damage. The cost of damage removal of clay mineral is very high and in certain cases the wells were abandoned because of clay damage problems. Clay stabilizers are added to stabilize the clay minerals during several well processes such as stimulation and enhanced oil recovery. Clay minerals such as chlorite cause several damaging mechanisms in sandstone formations such as wettability alteration (from water to oil wet). They will cause asphaltene precipitation in high asphaltenic crude oils. In addition, they can be treated or modified to eliminate their effect on the oil recovery processes. Change of clay mineral composition from one mineral to another is a common issue during stimulation; this change presents a challenge to well integrity. Fluid selection, for stimulation and enhanced oil recovery, is based on the compatibility of the fluid with the clay minerals.
Clay minerals in their micro or nano size are used in drilling, production, and enhanced oil recovery operations. In drilling Applications, sodium smectite clay mineral (bentonite) is the main constituent of the drilling fluid that gives the required rheology (viscosity, gel, and yield) to the drilling fluid and this will help carry the cuttings from the downhole to the surface. In addition, they can be used to enhance the drilling cement properties such as compressive strength to reduce the cement permeability. Clay minerals in nano size can be used in acidizing treatment to achieve good stability and viscosity for the stimulation fluid. In enhanced oil recovery, different nano-clays can be used to enhance the oil recovery by modifying the surface charge of the reservoir rock.
− Main convener: Ibnelwaleed Hussein, Gas Processing Center, College of Engineering, Qatar University (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: Mohamed Mahmoud, Petroleum Engineering Department, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia (email@example.com)
All contributions not included in other sessions
Convener: Javier Huertas Puerta, Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-UGR (firstname.lastname@example.org)
− Co-conveners: Mercedes Suárez Barrios, Dpto. Geología, Universidad de Salamanca, Spain (email@example.com); Saverio Fiore, Istituto di Metodologie per l´Analisi Ambientale, CNR (firstname.lastname@example.org)